displasiaThe causes of congenital deformities can be divided conveniently into genetic, environmental, and unknown causes. A minority of congenital anomalies have a single major environmental or genetic cause.

The classification proposed by Swanson has been adopted by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) and the International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand (IFSSH).

  • Type I - Failure of formation
  • Type II - Failure of differentiation
  • Type III - Duplication
  • Type IV - Overgrowth
  • Type V - Undergrowth
  • Type VI - Constriction band syndromes
  • Type VII - Generalized anomalies and syndromes

Each child with a hand difference is unique, and the approach to treatment is based on the child’s individual needs. The main goal and benefit of treatment is to improve the child’s ability to function with the difference. Another aim is to improve the appearance of the hand and support the child’s self-esteem.

Keep in mind that treatment cannot "cure" a hand difference, but it can help to improve function and appearance of the hand.

Early surgery is defined as that performed within the first 2 years of life. Advantages include the full potential for growth, development, and patterns of use; improved scarring; early incorporation of the reconstructed part; and reduced psychologic affect. Disadvantages of early surgery are increased technical difficulty and possible increased anaesthetic risk.

siggeneis dysplasies1

* Patient consent was obtained for publication of figures